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62462

O DUHU ZAKONA - TOM DRUGI

48,98
available
ISBN ISBN: 978-953-225-088-6
Binding Binding: hard
Year of issue Year of issue: 2008

About the book O DUHU ZAKONA - TOM DRUGI

Ta je slava, koja je potrajala, budući da se radi o političkome filozofu, pomalo čudna i može se usporediti jedino s onom Marxovom. Tomu je tako zato što se Montesquieua smatralo i još ga se smatra ne samo teoretičarem koji je na politiku ili na društvo bacio novo svjetlo, nego istinskim učenjakom, otkrivačem i izumiteljem. Njegovi ga ili naši suvremenici ne uspoređuju sa Aristotelom, pa ni s Rousseauom ili Voltaireom, nego s Linnéom ili s Newtonom. Nije važno što otkrića koja mu pripisuju nisu uvijek ista: u XVIII. stoljeću to je teorija o utjecaju klimâ ili teorija zakonâ, kasnije nauk o diobi vlasti ili sociologija; jer, prije nego što je bio inovator u svojoj teoriji, bio je to u svojoj metodi i u svome predmetu.

Montesqueiua se htjelo učiniti pravnikom i teoretičarem prava, ali i pretečom sociologije (Auguste Comte i Durkheim), a Raymond ga je Aron štoviše zvao i prvim sociologom (str. 66), iako ga istodobno smatra posljednjim klasičnim filozofom, potom pionirom sociologije prava (Gurvitch), pronalazačem sociologije znanja (W. Stark) ili metode idealnih tipova.

On je i sâm bio svjestan novosti svoga postupka, o čemu svjedoči epigraf: Prolem sine matre creatam. Novost je prije svega u predmetu Duha zakonâ. "Ovom su djelu" piše Montesquieu, "predmet zakoni, običaji i razne navade svih naroda svijeta. Može se reći da je tema djela golema, budući da obuhvaća sve među ljudima uvriježene ustanove." Na toj je točki originalnost dvostruka: ona je u prvom redu u enciklopedijskom karakteru projekta. Bilo je, zasigurno, i prije Montesquieua opisâ ovoaga ili onoga više ili manje egzotičnih prava, povijestî određenih osobitih pravnih ustanova, filozofskih refleksija koje su se oslanjale na primjere, no nikad uzimanja u obzir ukupnost poznatih pravnih fenomena, u cilju stvaranja teorije. Drugi su aspekt, kao i prvi, suvremenici dobro uočili. D'Alembert tako primjećuje da "su većina drugih pisaca u tome žanru gotovo uvijek ili obični moralisti, ili obični pravnici, ili katkad i obični teolozi" (Pohvala montesquieuu). Naime, ranija se politička i pravna djela uvijek, u ovom ili onom obliku, prilagođuju tradiciji prirodnoga prava. Zajedničko je obilježje svih škola prirodnoga prava činjenica da one s onu stranu, iznad prava na snazi (takozvanog pozitivnoga prava), naučavaju postojanje jednog drugog prava koje valja otkriti bilo u božanskoj riječi, bilo u naravi stvari ili čovjeka. Ta se dva prava, prirodno i pozitivno, razlikuju kao apsolutno i relativno, univerzalno i partikularno, nužno i kontingentno. No Montesquieu po prvi put za isključivi predmet uzima proučavanje pozitivnoga prava, koje će nastojati tek opisati, te će se , barem načelno, odreći želje da o njemu sudi: "Ne pišem da bih kudio ono što je ustanovljeno u ma kojoj zemlji" (predgovor). (...)

Značajna je Montesquieuova odvažnost da se upusti u studij pozitivnih zakona svih zemalja i svih vremena. Tradicionalna je filozofija stavljala naglasak na veliku raznolikost pozitivnih zakona s obzirom na narode koji su im bili podložni. Ti su zakoni naime bili postavljeni ljudskom voljom i činili su se arbitrarnima i iracionalnima. Bio je to uostalom jedan od razloga koji su sklanjali na proučavanje prirodnoga, stabilnoga i racionalnoga prava. Istinska se montesquieova revolucija sastoji u postuliranju postojanja smisla pozitivnoga prava, u pretpostavci, kako piše u Predgovoru, da ljudi "u toj beskrajnoj raznovrsnosti zakonâ i običajâ nisu bili vođeni samo svojim fantazijama", drugim riječima, da se u tom skupu pravilnosti mogu naći "principi", pa tako pozitivno pravo i ljudska društva mogu biti predmetima znanosti, budući da su podložni nužnosti.

Author/s
Translator/s
Marija Spajić
Publisher/s
ISBN
978-953-225-088-6
Binding
hard
Year of issue
2008
Number of pages
490
Format
25 x 15 cm

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