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OSOBE KOJE NEDOSTAJU - Kritika društvenih nauka

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ISBN ISBN: 86-7963-197-3
Binding Binding: soft
Year of issue Year of issue: 2003

About the book OSOBE KOJE NEDOSTAJU - Kritika društvenih nauka

Postoji opšta saglasnost o tome da za istinsko izobilje nisu presudna materijalna dobra već nešto drugo: da bi se uživalo u dobrim stvarima neophodan je izvestan stepen demokratske slobode. Jednakost je drugi aspekt individualnog blagostanja. I ovde antropolozi imaju svoju poruku. Vladavina zakona i zajamčena sloboda govora mogu se naći u vrlo siromašnim zajednicama. Po svemu sudeći, nomadsko indijansko pleme Gvajaki u tropskim šumama Paragvaja oličava Monteskjeove političke ideale iako se ne služi glasačkim kutijama (Abensour 1987). A narodi koji su najsiromašniji u materijalnim dobrima često se odlikuju najupornijom privrženošću političkoj slobodi i jednakosti (Berreman 1981).

Čini se da su 60-ih i 70-ih antropolozi bili spremni da na toj osnovi započnu kritiku pojma siromaštva kojim se služe društvene nauke. Ali, taj poduhvat se zaglavio. U raspravi se pokazalo da je njihovo stanovište teško odbranjivo. Zaista je mučno biti u isti mah implicitno reakcionaran i radikalan. Kakva reakcija se očekuje od slušalaca? Sastoji li se poruka u tome da možemo prognati siromaštvo i uspostaviti pravu demokratiju ako se svi opredelimo za stočarski ili lovački život? Provokativno je tvrditi da je lovac suprotnost ekonomskom čoveku zato što su “njegove potrebe malobrojne a njegova sredstva (relativno) obilna”, ali iz zaključnog dela jasno je da Zahlins napada ustanovljeni diskurs na visokom nivou filozofskog uopštavanja: “Skloni smo da lovce i sakupljače smatramo siromašnima zato što oni nemaju ništa; možda bi bilo bolje da ih zbog toga smatramo slobodnima” (Sahlins 1974: 13-14).

Ideja da je malo lepo zavodljivo je privlačna; ona uspeva da se održi na površini i proizvodi zbrku među politolozima, kao što ćemo kasnije videti. Na određenom nivou, radikalnoj razmeni mišljenja potreban je drukčiji pojam siromaštva koji nije zakočen usmerenošću na potrebe pojedinca za materijalnim dobrima. Na drugom, administrativnom i političkom nivou, mora se govoriti o materijalnim stvarima - troškovima svakodnevnog života, telefonima, uređajima za klimatizaciju, centralnom grejanju, televiziji i rashladnim aparatima. Jasno je da Maršal Zahlins nije hteo da poruči industrijskoj sirotinji da smanji svoje potrebe ako želi da živi srećno i slobodno bez socijalne pomoći. Paradoksi, protivrečnosti i s njima povezane teškoće iskrsavaju onda kad se rasprave o strategijama lokalne javne pomoći uzdignu do opšte teorije o siromaštvu. Ako nas ne zadovoljava mlaćenje prazne slame moramo pokušati da preuredimo osnovne elemente tog diskursa.


Meri Daglas je predavala antropologiju na Oksfordu, Londonskom univerzitetu, Univerzitetu Nortvestern i Prinstonu. Pri fondaciji Rasel Sejdž vodila je program za istraživanje kulture. Objavila je niz knjiga i stručnih radova, medju kojima i “Purity and Danger” (1966; “Čisto i opasno”, Beograd: XX vek), “Natural Symbols” (1970; “Prirodni simboli”, Novi Sad: Svetovi), “How Institutions Think” (1986; “Kako institucije misle”, Edicija Reč), “Risk and Blame” (1992).

Stiven Nej radi u Interdisciplinarnom centru za uporedna istraživanja u društvenim naukama (The Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, ICCR) u Beču. Pored ostalih, objavio je i sledeće radove – sa: Michael Thompson, “Consulting the Frogs”, u Gunnar Grendstad, Michael Thompson i Per Selle (ur.), “Cultural Theory as Political Science” (London: Routledge 1999); sa: Mary Douglas, Des Gasper i Michale Thompson, “Human Needs and Wants”, u Steve Rayner i Elizabeth Malone (ur.), “Human Choice and Global Change. Vol. 1: The Societal Framework” (Columbus, OH: Batelle Press 1998).


Ulomak

Translator/s
Slavica Miletić
Publisher/s
ISBN
86-7963-197-3
Binding
soft
Year of issue
2003
Number of pages
188
Format
21 x 15 cm

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